Tests that verify a software workflow from beginning to end are called end-to-end or E2E tests. Our end users ultimately determine our final websites, applications, and services. End-to-end automation testing of a given application gives businesses a better idea of how reliable, fast, and entertaining it is.
If the application does not meet the changing needs and expectations of the user, even the best concepts may fail.
Our goal in this blog is to help you improve your end-to-end testing skills as a developer.
End-to-End Testing: What Is It?
A software testing method called end-to-end testing (E2E testing) examines an application’s workflow from start to finish. This technique tries to verify the system’s integration and data integrity by simulating actual user scenarios.
To test how the application interacts with hardware, network connectivity, external dependencies, databases, and other apps, the test essentially runs through every action the application can take.
E2E testing is often carried out following system and functional testing completion. Both manual and automated scripts can be used for end-to-end testing.
Two Different End-To-End Testing Techniques
Particularly, two main categories of end-to-end testing techniques are frequently employed.
Horizontal testing method
The horizontal testing procedure consists of various applications.
An ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) application with a single file can be tested using the horizontal method. An online eCommerce platform’s web-based application could serve as a straightforward illustration.
A transaction involves numerous factors, including account information, product quantity, kind, and shipping information.
Vertical Testing Method
The all-encompassing testing procedure is the vertical testing method. The entire application is tested from top to bottom.
The HTML-based web app that employs HTML codes to contact servers serves as a wonderful illustration. An API is necessary for these apps to generate SQL codes against the database. The moderation procedure of these complex computing scenarios calls for careful validation and specialized testing.
The vertical testing approach is incorporated with other testing approaches due to its intricacy.
End-to-End Testing Activities
There are three components to the testing design framework.
1. User Functions
Create user functions by performing the following:
- List the software’s attributes and how its various components interact.
- Keep track of and record every action you take for each function. Similarly,
- process all input and output data.
- Compile a list of all connections between user functions.
- Determine whether each user function is unique or reusable.
Decide on a set of conditions for each user function before building conditions based on them. Timing, data quality, and other elements impacting user functions may be included.
3. Test cases
Consider the following when developing test cases for E2E testing:
- To test the functionality of all user functions, create numerous test cases.
- At least provide one distinct test case for each condition.
End-to-end testing procedures
Finding use cases for test scenarios is the initial stage of end-to-end testing. Describe each stage in detail and list the anticipated outcomes.
Effective end-to-end testing involves the following steps:
- Define the test scenarios.
- Make sure your testing environment matches the scenarios.
- Consider the hardware and software requirements.
- Define the reaction that systems must have.
- Define the testing protocols.
- Create test plans.
- Conduct tests and analysis.
What makes end-to-end testing essential?
Each application connects to and integrates with several external systems and databases. As a result, the workflow of the app becomes moderately complex. End-to-end testing of software applications checks the accuracy of an application’s different dependencies. Additionally, it determines if precise information is being transmitted between various system components.
End-to-end testing’s essential metrics
When issues are found during the end-to-end testing process, isolating the issue for correction becomes much easier by gathering measurements at each step. The entire code can then be put through another round of end-to-end testing after a set of unit tests have been created to guarantee the bug has been fixed.
End-to-end testing tracks deviations from the norm, or anticipated results, under various circumstances. With the aid of these measures, relevant data will be gathered. Some essential parameters to take into account are,
- Status of test preparation.
- A summary of test progress each week.
- An in-depth report of any bugs.
- Monitoring the testing environment
6 Best Practices for End-to-End Testing
End-to-end testing best practices will guarantee a reliable and effective system.
1. Prioritize the appropriate factors:
While you should test every part of an app, start with the ones where failure would most likely negatively affect the user experience or your revenue stream. It’s advisable to start by taking care of the issues that will influence your company most.
- Test like the user when developing test cases. Consider yourself a user of the app.
- Is it simple to find every option? Users may obtain their desired results in two or three stages.
- Utilize user stories and acceptance testing documentation to clarify the user’s perspective. Create test cases in this manner.
E2E tests should concentrate on app functionalities whose failure will cause the most problems. Create more complex test cases to validate these functionalities first. For this, think about utilizing a risk assessment matrix.
2. Test the scenarios of common users:
It might not be possible to map out every scenario and user case, so test the scenarios of common users. E2E testing is best used to test common user scenarios. Test the most typical scenarios rather than testing exceptions. For edge-case user scenarios, integration or low-level unit testing can be a better fit.
3. Create realistic tests:
Most individuals don’t simply click their way through websites or apps. They pause when reading, viewing photos, or performing a task. End-to-end testing ought to simulate as closely as possible how people interact in real life.
4. Unit tests, integration tests, and error monitoring come first:
The entire program will be tested in end-to-end scenarios, which may increase complexity. When there are several mistakes, each point of failure needs to be looked at and fixed. Before performing end-to-end testing, fix as many errors as you can.
Structure and organization are crucial in E2E testing. Conduct unit and integration tests initially to resolve the first level of errors.
5. API testing:
End-to-end tests can record front-end functional errors, but developers can distinguish between functional and error-prone API call failures when combined with API tests.
6. Enhance the Testing Environment:
You may start testing more quickly by keeping the testing environment at its best. This enables quick data clearing so that your test environment is prepared for the following test and requires little setup when it’s time to test.
Note that manual end-to-end testing works best since it enables testers to act as users would. Automation testing should be used only for low-risk features that require repetitive activity, if at all.
Challenges for End-to-End Testing
End-to-end testing presents difficulties, which is why creating a plan and test pathways is essential. Automation could miss an error if you skip a step or forget to specify an outcome.
For instance, workflow testing must be carried out in a specific order to simulate how a user will use an app. Bad data can result from failing to record each step a user takes. Creating test suites that match the process can be time-consuming and difficult, especially for complicated systems. Running hundreds or even thousands of tests might be part of it.
Things are significantly simpler in the development environment. But you also need to be able to test in client- or production-side settings.
Development environments might not always be accessible for testing. It could be necessary to access virtual machines and install local agents. Additionally, disregard it if a system update occurs while testing is underway.
For testing, you can leverage cloud environments that replicate actual devices and browsers or in-house device laboratories.
Developers and testers may overcome the present testing challenges associated with various devices and supported platforms by using the cross-browser testing platform provided by LambdaTest.
LambdaTest provides a complete testing environment for test suites like Selenium, Cypress, Playwright, Puppeteer, and many others. End-to-end testing across 3000+ browser and OS combinations is possible with LambdaTest.
Developers can scale end-to-end tests with numerous features, such as dashboards to track flaky tests and parallel tests. With their new HyperExecute product, they are now elevating performance.
To Sum Up
Making testing more pleasurable is one of the most important advantages of the new generation of test automation tools like LambdaTest. They lessen tedious, repetitive manual checks. They get rid of a lot of the irritating flakiness seen in older automation frameworks.
They make it simpler for the entire team to work together. These practices ought to enable you to get the most out of your test automation expenditure while still having fun.
Development teams put a lot of effort into putting together intricate code bases to build fantastic applications. It requires a tremendous amount of labor, which can be cumbersome.
However, the outcome is an app that performs remarkably well after being made public.